Wednesday, 08 September 2021 00:00




The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP) with support from UN Women has launched Prosecutor Plea Bargain Guidelines.


The main objective of the Guidelines is to streamline the processes to be followed by prosecutors in conducting plea bargain and to enhance the efficiency of the criminal justice system for orderly, predictable, uniform, consistent and timely resolution of criminal matters.


They contain principles of plea bargaining, types of plea bargaining, the law applicable to the process, an outline of the plea bargaining process, contents of the plea bargain agreement, and its execution, monitoring and evaluation of the plea bargain procedure, as well as the roles of the parties involved in plea bargaining, their rights, and support systems.


“The Prosecutor Plea Bargain Guidelines are intended to train and build the capacity of all stakeholders in the criminal justice system and in particular – Prosecutors, Judicial Officers, Defence Lawyers, Police and Prisons Officers on the objectives and procedures of plea bargaining which are human rights based, victim/survivor centred and gender sensitive,” said the DPP Jane Frances Abodo at the launch.


On behalf of the Judiciary, the Hon the Principal Judge Dr. Flavian Zeija embraced the Guidelines as a remedy for injustices that were being caused during the process, particularly unfair sentences.


Dr. Benson Oketch, the Chief Guest who represented the UN Women Country Representative at the launch said, “The Guidelines are intended to elevate the survivors’ voices by allowing them to participate in the plea bargain process.”


The DPP expressed her gratitude to UN Women, EU–UN Spotlight Initiative and the Embassy of Sweden for the financial support towards the development of the Guidelines.




Jacquelyn Okui


Public Relations Officer


Friday, 21 May 2021 00:00




The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP) has launched child friendly rooms at its regional offices in Kabale, Mbarara and Masaka. The launch of the child friendly room in Kabale took place on 19th May 2021, presided over by Hon. Justice Moses Kazibwe, the Resident Judge of Kabale, who was the Chief Guest.  The launch of the Mbarara and Masaka child friendly rooms took place today 20th May 2021, presided over by Ms. Rachael Odoi, the Senior Technical Advisor, Justice Law and Order Sector (JLOS).


In the course of its work, the ODPP encounters children who come into contact with the law as child victims of crime, child witnesses to crime, and children in conflict with the law (juvenile offenders). Therefore, it is the duty of the prosecutors in the ODPP to prepare child victims and witnesses so that their voices can be heard in judicial proceedings.


Speaking at the event, the Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions, Mr. Vincent Wagona noted that previously prosecutors faced numerous challenges when preparing children for court because some of the children would get timid, freak out or simply keep quiet when asked to narrate their ordeals in open spaces with adults. It became very difficult to get any evidence of child witnesses and some of the cases would be lost in court as a result.


Mr. Wagona further observed that a couple of ODPP trainings with Children at Risk Action Network (CRANE), an organisation that deals with children, revealed that children needed child friendly environments to be able to open up and tell their stories during judicial proceedings, resulting in the birth of child friendly rooms.




Mr. Wagona further said that with support from the Children at Risk Action Network (CRANE), the ODPP launched its first ever child friendly room at the head office. Subsequently, the Justice Law and Order Sector (JLOS) has supported the roll out of these rooms to the ODPP regional offices, for which the ODPP is very grateful. He also appreciated the Department of Gender, Children and Sexual Offences headed by the Assistant DPP, Samali Wakooli, for their efforts towards the establishment of the rooms.


These rooms are used as reception and holding spaces for child victims, witnesses before their appearance in court, preparation rooms for victims and witnesses for court, by the prosecutors, interview rooms for child victims and witnesses, therapeutic rooms for emotional healing, rooms for child offenders in the event that there is need for them to come to the ODPP and rooms for children who are at risk and may be in need of advice and support.


Indeed, with the creation of these rooms, it has come to light that the children who are prepared for court in this kind of environment tend to give better evidence in court thus reducing on the number of cases lost due to failure of children to testify.


“More cases can now be successfully prosecuted because children can now easily tell their ordeals.” said Ms. Faith Kembabazi, the Executive Director, CRANE.


Ms. Rachael Odoi, the Senior Technical Advisor, JLOS, observed that international law and practice emphasize promotion of child friendly procedures in the justice system whereby children who come into contact with the law, as victims of crime, witnesses of crime or those in conflict with the law, are supposed to be treated with dignity, and respect. They require that in handling cases which involve children, the children’s best interests should be a primary consideration and they should be treated in a child friendly manner. On behalf of JLOS, she pledged their continued support to the ODPP in promoting good practices that enhance access to justice for all. “JLOS looks forward to entrenching the child friendly procedures and practices in all institutions that deal with children in their daily work,” she said.


Justice Moses Kazibwe appreciated the initiative of the child friendly room in the ODPP and the institutions involved. He advocated for the other institutions in the justice chain handling children; the Judiciary and the Uganda Police Force to benefit from the initiative.




Jacquelyn Okui


Public Relations Officer




Thursday, 29 April 2021 00:00




Today the 29th of April 2021, the Office of the DPP with support from JLOS are hosting their quarterly ODPP - CID coordination meeting at Hotel Africana.


The main agenda of the meeting is to assess the role of the ODPP and UPF in managing electoral offences that emanated from the previous elections of January 2021.


The meeting was attended by Top & Senior Management of ODPP headed by Justice Jane Frances Abodo, Officers from the Criminal Investigation Directorate (CID) headed by AIGP Grace Akullo, Representatives from UPDF headed by General Henry Masiko and the Chief Executive Officer from Uganda Law Society (ULS).


The ODPP/CID coordination meetings are usually a self reflection of the currently prevailing issues in society and the engagement enables the actors to take stock and pave the way forward in upholding the rule of law.


In her presentation, the Asst. DPP Ms. Barbara Kawuma stated that the Electoral offences unit in the ODPP was set up in August 2021 to specifically handle the electoral process of January 2021. She noted that the unit has so far as of March 2021 registered over 350 cases, where majority are on further inquiries.


In his presentation D/SSP Moses Taremwa from UPF articulated the numerous challenges faced by the Force during the election process such as lack of human resource to man all the political centers. Lack of protective gear for the police officers who were usually attacked by civilians and wrong elements while carrying out their mandate of maintaining law and order in communities.


 The CEO of ULS Mr. Moses Okwalinga noted that as ULS they are concerned about the selective prosecution of opposition members visa vie the ruling party. ULS further noted that the media was awash with stories and scenes of security agencies mating violence on civilians and members of the public. The Society pledged to work together with other stakeholders in promoting civic education in preparation of the next elections.


The meeting resolved to open the lines of communication and have more engagements with all stakeholders in order to make the electoral process smooth.






Sunday, 07 March 2021 00:00




Today the 3rd of March 2021, the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), Justice Jane Frances Abodo has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Space for Giants (SFG) to strengthen the ability of the Office of the DPP to handle cases involving wildlife crimes.


The MOU was signed in the boardroom of the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP) in a meeting attended by Mr. Katto Wambua, Wildlife Justice and Rule of Law Manager, Space for Giants, Mr. Justus Karuhanga, Country Representative, Space for Giants, Mr. Charles Elem–Ogwal, Deputy DPP (Prosecutions), Mr. Odumbi James Owere, Deputy DPP (International Affairs), Ms. Barbra Kawuma Bugembe, Assistant DPP/Head, Environmental and Wildlife Crime Division, Thomas Jatiko, Assistant DPP, International Crimes among others, chaired by the DPP.


Space for Giants is an international conservation non–governmental organisation based in Africa and committed to supporting governments to protect wildlife and Africa’s critical landscapes/ecosystem from ever–increasing pressures and wildlife crime. It collaborates with national and regional authorities on prosecution, law reform, wildlife management, policing and judicial authorities as well as international agencies and national, regional and international NGOs.


In her remarks, the DPP noted that the signing of the MOU was the beginning of an esteemed and privileged partnership between the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions – Uganda and Space for Giants.


She said, “Wildlife crimes have the potential to affect the natural ecosystem, communities and livelihoods. Wildlife crimes can also be transnational, implying that the sources of financing are syndicates of international organised criminals. The danger with this, is that some of these syndicates could end up financing other serious crimes like terrorism and arms trade. It is for this reason that the




Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions – Uganda has taken a keen interest in wildlife crime by setting up a specialised division based at the head office to handle and coordinate the management of all cases involving wildlife crimes. The division also monitors and assesses the management and prosecution of cases involving wildlife crimes by delegated prosecutors.”


The DPP thanked Space for Giants for the initiative and pledged to ensure that the Office of the DPP meets its end of the partnership. 


On behalf of Space for Giants, Mr. Katto Wambua, the Wildlife Justice and Rule of Law Manager at Space for Giants pledged to support the Wildlife Division of the Office of the DPP, scale it up to the regions and equip it. He further pledged to build the capacity of the Prosecutors and other stakeholders in handling cases involving wildlife crimes, support law reform proposals and international cooperation.


Mr. Katto Wambua thanked the DPP for affording Space for Giants the opportunity to consolidate its strategy.


Under the MOU, Space for Giants will assist the ODPP to strengthen and improve its ability to discharge its mandate through operationalization of the ODPP Wildlife Crime Prosecution Department, capacity building, developing a Wildlife Crime Training Curriculum and related educational materials, law reform, supporting regional and international legal cooperation mechanisms, enhancing case work standards and internal mechanisms for case management, and prosecutors’ awards.




Jacquelyn Okui


Public Relations Officer – ODPP


Wednesday, 10 June 2020 00:00




Following recent complaints and acrimony by various stakeholders of the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions regarding torture of suspects, the Office has found it important to state its position on torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment of suspects.


The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, Uganda is a creature of Article 120 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995. The constitutional mandate of the ODPP is to prosecute criminal cases in any court in Uganda apart from the court martial, and to direct Police to investigate information of a criminal nature. The functions of the ODPP are geared towards the reduction of crime and the pursuit of justice. In exercising its authority and mandate, the ODPP is enjoined to have regard to public interest, the interest of administration of justice and the need to prevent abuse of legal process.


In accordance with its mandate, the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions does not condone the use of torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment on suspects, and strongly discourages security agencies from carrying out interrogations that make use of torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment.


Torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment are a violation of the law. They are ineffective as a means of extracting reliable information. Moreover, these forms of treatment negatively impact the physical and mental health of suspects. They have far-reaching consequences for Uganda because they damage its reputation, and undermine its credibility when it pursues international human rights.


Torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment are a violation of the law


Security agencies are required to observe a wide range of international and national treaties, conventions, and laws that prohibit torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment, and the prohibition is absolute under all circumstances.


Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 provides,


“No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”


Article 1 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984 which was ratified by Uganda in 1986 defines torture. It states:


“… ‘torture’ means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity…”


Article 2 (2) of the Convention prohibits torture as it states:


No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture.”


The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 which is the Supreme law of the land and has binding force on all authorities and persons throughout Uganda provides in Article 24 that:


No person shall be subjected to any form of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”


In addition, Article 44 (a) provides that there shall be no derogation from the enjoyment of the right to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.


Moreover, according to Article 20 (2), the rights and freedoms of individuals and groups enshrined in the Constitution shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons.


The Prevention and Prohibition of Torture Act was enacted in 2012, and also prohibits torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment in its Section 3, and renders them punishable offences.


Therefore, it is resolved that the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, Uganda:


1.     Condemns the use of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as interrogation strategies and calls upon all Security agencies including the Uganda Police Force (UPF), Internal Security Organisation (ISO), External Security Organisation (ESO) to explicitly ban the use of such treatment and enforce all laws and regulations prohibiting its use.


2.     Shall order an investigation into every torture allegation that is brought to its attention.


3.     Shall prosecute suspected perpetrators of torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment against whom there is sufficient evidence.






Jane Frances ABODO






10th June 2020


Friday, 24 April 2020 00:00


Hon. Lady Judge Jane Frances Abodo has assumed her position as Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) today April 22, 2020. This follows her recent appointment by His Excellency the President Y.K. Museveni as the DPP after the Hon. Justice Mike Chibita was elevated to Justice of the Supreme Court of Uganda.

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP) has been eagerly awaiting its head since the Hon. Justice Mike Chibita (JSC) left almost three months ago. We are therefore pleased with the appointment, more so since she is the first female DPP and one of our own, having served in the ODPP for over 20 years.

The Hon. Lady Judge Jane Frances Abodo joined the ODPP as a pupil State Attorney and rose to the rank of Senior Assistant DPP. She headed the Anti-Corruption Department for 8 years and successfully handled very high profile corruption related cases including the pension case of 88 billion Uganda Shillings, against Jimmy Lwamafa and others. In 2015, she was recognized by the Uganda Law Society as the best female prosecutor of the year. She left an exceptional record when she crossed over to the Judiciary in March 2018.

It is with great pleasure that we extend our heartiest congratulations to the Hon. Lady Judge Jane Frances Abodo on her new appointment. We gladly receive her, pledge our support and look forward to productive cooperation.

We wish her success in her new assignment and hope that under her leadership, the ODPP will scale greater heights.

We thank His Excellency the President for the appointment.




Jacquelyn Okui

Ag. Principal State Attorney/PRO


Tuesday, 24 September 2019 00:00

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions has this morning received anatomical dolls from CRANE (Children at Risk Action Network), an organization that supports prosecution of cases of sexual and gender based violence involving children.

The anatomical dolls will be used as demonstration aids to help young victims of Sexual violence to clearly show to court what happened to them and also aid the prosecutor to lead the evidence without compelling the victim to recite words that they may be uncomfortable mentioning in public. Vulnerable witnesses eg. the deaf, dumb may also use them.

Sexual offences form the bulk of cases handled by the ODPP at the High Court and most witnesses are children. Research shows that young children are better able to communicate through demonstration than through language and the dolls provide children with a road map of the body.

In a criminal trial, prosecution is required to prove a case beyond reasonable doubt. This the prosecutors do so through witnesses who are called to tell court what happened. Oftentimes, the court will require this witness to clearly state how they were abused and if they are unable to do so the case may be dismissed on grounds that the prosecution has failed to prove a case beyond reasonable doubt. Refer to the case of Uganda Vs. Apai where the victim could not clearly explain the sexual act in public and court acquitted the accused.

Uganda as a country has most of its beliefs on a strong cultural setting. Most of the cultures believe or perceive the sexual act as a bad act that is not to be discussed in the open. Because of the strong cultural restrictions, some witnesses find it difficult to openly talk about sexuality. Individuals, families, tribes, communities all use different terms to refer to sexual organs.

Given that most cases of child sexual abuse lack external corroborating evidence, children's verbal accounts of their experiences are of paramount importance to investigators and prosecutions. The use of the anatomical dolls by prosecutors is expected to improve access to justice for children and vulnerable victims of crime through improved success rate in prosecutions.


PR Office - 20th September 2019

Sunday, 25 August 2019 00:00





We wish to thank the Government, specifically the President’s office for the innovation of the workplace HIV/AIDS committees for all the Government Ministries and departments, and for permitting these committees to source funds elsewhere other than the Government.

It is this effort that saw the ODPP HIV/AIDS committee participate at the Global Fund country concept writing.

I am proud to be the patron of this committee because of the commendable job that is going on in our organization by this committee. The committee has greatly spearheaded dispelling of stigma through her quarterly awareness campaigns, the committee supports the disclosed staff with a monthly allowance to improve their nutrition; we have work stations whose output has improved greatly due to diet support, the committee has sourced and placed condom dispensers in some of the  staff wash rooms and they Endeavor  to refill the dispensers at all time, and whenever funds allow the committee holds ODPP awareness week usually covering three regions each year.

We also commend the HIV/AIDS committee for the innovation of the rights based approach in the criminal justice system for the end of AIDS. This is an innovation we as an office pledge to support and we call upon everyone concerned to rally with us.

On this note we wish to thank the Global Fund through the ministry of Health for supporting the ODPP office in championing the rights based approach to end AIDS by facilitating the training of trainers.

 End of HIV/AIDS is a battle that calls every effort and indeed every one; it is the world’s desire hence mine and yours.

To this end, our office will continue to give a quarterly contribution to the HIV/AIDS committee to help them to plan and do awareness among the staff members.

Thank you.



Thursday, 11 July 2019 00:00



DFID Deputy Head of Office, Ian Miller today hands over vehicles to ODPP (U) and CID to facilitate corruption investigations countrywide.

The Director of Public Prosecutions Justice Mike Chibita and a team from his office this afternoon received a brand new pickup from DFID/ SUGAR TAF at the latter's offices at S&L Building on MacKinnon Road in Kampala.

Speaking at the handover, Mr. Miller stated that DFID recognizes the fundamental importance of addressing fraud and corruption and is aware of the challenges systematically encountered by prosecutors and investigators in handling cases of corruption. He noted that following the allegations of fraud and corruption in Uganda's refugee response, they availed 551,000 Euros to facilitate investigations for a year and took the decision to support long term capacity development for the institutions involved. These include the office of the DPP, the Inspectorate of Government, CID and the Financial Intelligence Authority.
DFID is the second biggest donor for humanitarian response in Uganda and a major supporter of the Government on tackling corruption.

The DPP thanked DFID and SUGAR TAF for the support they have given the institution in setting up its Prosecution Case Management System, capacity building for prosecutors and aiding the investigation of allegations of corruption in the Refugee settlements.

Progress in the investigations had stalled as a result of inadequate resources.
He promised that the resources availed will be put to good use.



Saturday, 15 June 2019 00:00


The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions in partnership with UNHCR has this morning launched two important books, that is; the witness protection guidelines and the victims’ rights and empowerment guidelines for prosecutors.

At the moment, there is no legislation in Uganda to provide for the protection of witnesses. Internationally, the UN convention against corruption, and transnational organized crime together with the Rome statute domesticated as the international criminal court Act, mandates all the state parties to put in place mechanisms to ensure the safety of witnesses. The government of Uganda through the Uganda law reform commission has since 2009 been working on legislation to cater for witness protection which is to date still work in progress.


In a nation that lacks a national witness protection framework, witnesses have no security assurance and are therefore afraid of testify in the courts of laws; this in turn hinders access to justice, fair trial and accountability for human rights violations combating impunity.

The ODPP in implementing its mandate has put up a number of measures to ensure it operates under a victim centered approach and also has made an attempt towards protecting victims of crime. The measures include, the creation of a fully-fledged department of witness protection and victim empowerment, which also among others, receives and addresses complaints or concerns that are raised by the public regarding criminal proceedings

Having realized the need to emphasize a victim centered approach in the ODPP and need to protect witnesses in order to efficiently and effectively execute its mandate; the ODPP partnered with the UN office of the High commissioner for Human rights (OHCHR) which supported the ODPP in a study to review the assistance of victims programmes and complaints handling mechanism in the ODPP. The study among others, recommended the development and adoption of standard guidelines for prosecutors.


The guidelines are meant to assist prosecutors to determine the witness protection perimeters and the scope of protection (in the absence of legislation); they are also designed to put in place a standard procedure to handle the victims of crime and to assist the prosecutors to appreciate the notion of the victims’ rights and how to have them realized during investigations, at trial and after trial.


It is from the above background that the ODPP is proud to launch these prosecutors’ guidelines. The prosecutors are urged to strictly observe these guidelines when handling victims and witnesses of crime at all stages of the case, as we await for the witness protection law.  

The ODPP calls upon all  law enforcement officers, representatives of the government , Heads of missions present, members of CSOs, academia and the general public to  advocate for the witness protection law to be passed so that the security of our witnesses  is guaranteed.

Friday, 30 November 2018 00:00

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP), Uganda derives its mandate from Article 120 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995. Among the cardinal roles of the ODPP, is to institute criminal proceedings against any person or authority in any court with competent jurisdiction other than the Court Martial and to direct police investigations in criminal matters.


The ODPP falls under the Justice Law and order Sector (JLOS) which is mandated under the Second National Development Plan (NDP11) 2015/16-2019/20, to administer Justice, Maintain Law and Order as well as promote Human Rights.  One of the focus areas for the JLOS institutions under Chapter 14 of the NDP II, is “to fight corruption in order to strengthen Uganda’s competitiveness for wealth creation and inclusive growth”. In Particular, JLOS institutions are expected to promote accountability and observance of human rights, by among others, “adopting and implementing anti-corruption measures.”

Mandate of the Anti-Corruption Department

The ODPP executes its mandate through the different departments among which, is the Anti-corruption department which was established in 2009, to prosecute cases before the Anti-Corruption Division of the High Court. The core mandate of the ACD is;

To provide legal advice to investigating bodies in corruption and money laundering cases. (Prosecution-Led investigations);

To prosecute corruption and money laundering cases;

To Enforce Measures for recovery of proceeds of crime;

Maintain Coordination with stakeholders on corruption matters;


Promoting accountability and good governance in Uganda requires concerted effort of the key players in the Justice system. In this regard, the ODPP’s performance hinges on the performance of all the other key players in the criminal justice sector.

Achievements for November 2017 to October 2018

Prosecution- led investigations

A number of cases have been handled under the prosecution LED investigations process. In term of prosecution led investigations, most of the cases are carried over and they take time to conclude since the prosecution team is involved in the investigations right from the beginning. A total of 18 cases have been handled and investigations therein are still ongoing due to the complexity of the matters, understaffing of both the investigators and the prosecutors.

Further, we are in the process of developing Prosecution Led Investigations Guidelines. A committee was also established for this purpose and the draft is already in place.


Prosecution of corruption related cases and money laundering cases

A number of cases have been prosecuted and concluded in court, through full trial as well as plea bargain. On the part of ACD, effort has been made to ensure that the culprits who are willing to do plea bargain do so and the cases are handled quickly thus not wasting courts time and reducing on backlog. 161 cases have been concluded for the financial year July 2017 to September 2018. Specifically 132 cases were handled in the previous financial year and 29 in the first quarter of the current financial year 2018/2019. The percentage conviction rate for the financial year 2017/18 was 67.1% and for the first quarter of 2018/2019 is 87.5%.


Additionally the ACD is the process of developing a prosecutor’s manual on Plea Bargain. A committee assigned to handle this task was constituted and a draft manual is in Place.


The table below presents a highlight of the cases performance of the ODPP/ACD Department for the financial year 2017/18 and the first quarter of the financial year 2018


Case Stages

Gender Numbers

Number of Cases




















Prosecution Led Investigations (on going)





Further Inquiries





Consented to Charge

























Under hearing





On Mention








































Closed Files





Administrative Action





Total Cases





Conviction Rate







First Quarter for F/Y 2018-2019

Case Stages

Gender Numbers

Number of Cases






















Prosecution Led Investigations (on going)





F/ Inquiries





Consented To

























On Mention






























































Overall Conviction rate =             ________ 12 _________ x 100 = …… 85.7 ………. %
                                                            14                   (Convictions + Dismissals + Acquittals)




Appeals and Miscellaneous applications

The ACD handles appeals and miscellaneous applications at the ACD, high court, court of appeal and the magistrate courts. In the main we have handled 75 cases on appeal both at ACD High court and Court of Appeal. We have just concluded a court of appeal session of 40 cases most of which are still pending judgement. 16 miscellaneous applications been handled at the ACD high court. Below is a summary of what has been handled for court of appeal and the ACD high court for the period November 2017 to date.



Number of Cases

































Asset Recovery

Recovered Funds

Between November 2017 to date, a total of Shs. 1,174,363,766/= has been recovered through compensation and confiscation Orders and deposited onto the Asset Recovery Account with Bank of Uganda.

Restrained Properties

For the period April to July 2018, Restraining Orders have been granted in respect of a number of properties, which include land, motor vehicles and bank accounts.  For this period alone, the following properties have been restrained;

Bank Account No 3020095743 – Centenary Bank

Busiro Block 432 Plot 456, Bumbuli

Kyadondo Block 254 Plot 628 Balita

Kyadondo Block 254 Plot 628 Balita

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1812, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1813, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1814, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1815, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1816, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1817, Busasa.

Kyadondo Block 183 Plot 1818, Busasa.

Stanbic Bank (UGX) A/C No. 9030009189369 – Village Mall Bugolobi.

Stanbic Bank  (USD) A/C No. 9030009189296 - Village Mall Bugolobi

LRV 3858 Folio 16/17 Plot No.1645 Kibuga Block 11 Land situated at Kabowa, Kampala District.

Plot No. 932 Kibuga Block 9 Land situated at Kagugube, Mengo Distrct.

LRV 3829  Folio 19 Plot No.840 Kyadondo Block 262 Land situated at Makindye, Kampala District

Kyadondo Block 257 Plot 691 Land situated at Munyonyo,

Kyadondo Block 257 Plot 690 Land situated at Munyonyo.

Kyadondo Block 257 Plot 109 Land situated at Munyonyo.

LRV 3868 Folio 5 Plot 78 Land situated at Nakivubo Road

Bank Account No.01407120002 Bank of Africa.

However, there are other restraining orders in respect of the pension cases which are ongoing and they get renewed every six months until the final disposal of the cases.

Training and Capacity Building for the ACD staff and other prosecutors across the country

Issues to do with corruption, money laundering, cybercrime and white collar crime generally are dynamic and complex. The cases handled at ACD are complex with evidence of a technical nature which poses challenges in analysing by the prosecutors thereby requiring external technical support. The technical capacity of the judicial officers is also inadequate in some cases. 

In light of the above, the need for continuous capacity building and technical support is inevitable if the staff is to deliver effectively on their mandate. They require continuous training and hands-on support in order to be abreast with the latest developments in white collar crime.

Since November 2017, 18 staff under the ACD has been trained in the following areas, Asset Recovery, Money Laundering and Terrorism, Digital Forensics, Public Finance Management, Trial Advocacy, Financial Investigations, Regulatory Impact Assessment for the Development of the Proceeds of Crime Law, PROCAMIS, Risk Management, Leadership and Management among others. These trainings are made possible by the ODPP, and other partners like SUGAR TAF, UNODOC etc.

Challenges Encountered

Legislative challenges: Anti-corruption measures call for strong legislations. However, Uganda still lacks some of the vital pieces of legislation, an Asset Recovery Law, Anti-Corruption Regulations, Anti Money Laundering Regulations, and the witness protection Act. With regard to Asset recovery, there is no comprehensive law but sections scattered in various pieces of legislation. Additionally there is no law that allows recovery of proceeds before conviction (non-conviction based asset recovery) and as such even when the assets are traced and identified and at times restrained, they cannot be recovered until a conviction has been secured. This poses a challenge given the burden of proof on the prosecution to secure a conviction. Property gets lost or disposed of even when it is tainted but for failure to prove a charge against the person beyond reasonable doubt.   


Lack of Mutual Legal Assistance Legislation: Corruption cases are in most times committed across borders and even some of the assets that would be recovered can be traced across the borders. However, there is no legislation providing for mutual legal assistance in that respect. This therefore means that the properties across the border cannot be recovered.


Inadequate staffing: The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions is gravely under staffed which affects the organisational performance. The success of any organisation largely depends on the human resource which should be adequate both in terms of quality (skill, knowledge and competencies) and quantity. For example, it is not uncommon to find one prosecutor appearing in court in a corruption matter involving more than five accused persons against more than five defence attorneys. The ratio of workload to staff is really high thereby creating a case backlog and affecting the quality of investigations and prosecutions.

Lack of legal and institutional framework for Asset management: Most of the assets that would be recovered are going- concerns and courts are reluctant to issue restraining orders in such cases due to the fact that there is no infrastructure for the management of such assets. Even in a case where a management order has been issued to the Official receiver, there are challenges because of lack of a clear management structure.


Cash Based Economy: Uganda is mainly a cash based economy hence so many people tend to transact with cash without leaving a financial trail which may be followed for investigation purposes. This makes identifying and tracing of assets difficult. Principally the prosecution is required to prove its case beyond reasonable doubt which is an uphill task where vital pieces of information are missing to tie the evidence together in order to make a good case.


Inadequate Skills in Asset Tracing: The investigators lack skills in tracing/identifying assets and at times the assets are not registered in the names of the accused and thus difficult to attach them.

Inadequate Tooling: The Asset recovery unit of the ODPP does not have adequate tools such as vehicles and yet there is a lot of movement.

Inadequate funding:  The ODPP suffers inadequate funding to conduct prosecution led investigations which makes it hard to trace assets. In order to effectively trace and subsequently recover assets, it is important that asset recovery investigations be conducted concurrently with the main investigations. This is in most cases not possible due to inadequate funding and as result property that is tainted gets disposed of.


Inadequate witness funds:  the success of a case is dependent not only on the quality of evidence but also the ability to produce witnesses to testify in court. Securing witnesses for court attendance requires funding and yet sometimes there are no witness funds in courts and so witnesses cannot be summoned which leads to stagnation/ delay of cases thereby creating case backlog.


Lack of cooperation from witnesses: There are cases where witnesses do not turn up when summoned leading to numerous adjournments of the cases. Some witnesses relocate making it difficult to trace them while others fail to testify due to fear for their lives since most of them are called to testify against either their colleagues or their superiors. This is worsened by the absence of Witness Protection Law. As a result some deserving cases have stalled in court while others have been withdrawn for failure of the witnesses to come and testify.



A comprehensive law to provide for asset recovery law in Uganda should be enacted.

Legislate for Witness Protection.

Regulations under the Anti-Money Laundering Act should be developed.

Regulations under the Anti-Corruption Act should be developed.

Legislate for Mutual Legal Assistance.


There is need to increase funding for the operations of the ODPP and also remuneration of the staff.

Provide funding for the witnesses.

Ensure that the asset Recovery Unit is adequately tooled.


There is need to increase the staffing for the ODPP in general.

Deploy more staff to the ACD


Capacity Building

Continuous training and hand-on support is needed in the following areas;

Cyber Crime (Electronic Fraud)—Identification, extraction, preservation and presentation of evidence emanating from fraud involving use of the computer and electronic transfer of funds.

Money Laundering (both local and international). How to identify a money laundering case.

Mutual Legal Assistance (How to draft an effective MLA)

Extraction and management of Evidence.

Asset Recovery (tracing, freezing, confiscation and management)

Financial investigation.

Public Finance Management

Basic auditing principles

Digital forensics

Trial Advocacy

Direct case support through provision of technical assistance.

Plans for the next year 2018-2019

Finalise the internal Plea Bargain Manual.

Finalise the internal Prosecution Led Investigation Guidelines.

Continue to conduct prosecution Led Investigation on the on-going cases.

Undertake investigations in the alleged mismanagement of refuge operations in Uganda.

Prepare and prosecute the Pension 3 Case in court.

Perusal and handling of files within the stipulated timelines.

Continue prosecuting corruption and money laundering cases.

Training of staff in money laundering and corruption matters and white collar crime.

Enhance the capacity of Asset Recovery Unit.



The theme of this anti-corruption week “Citizen’s Participation in the Fight against Corruption: A Sustainable Path to Uganda’s Transformation” cannot have been put better. The need for citizenry participation in the fight against corruption and crime generally need not be over emphasized. The ODPP and the justice system generally, heavily rely on the citizens to not only report cases at police, but to cooperate with the police in the course of investigations and to come and testify in court when required. Without their involvement, the fight against corruption would be in vain. It is therefore important that all stakeholders, actively and meaningfully engage the public in the fight against corruption.



Thursday, 30 August 2018 00:00

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP) is mandated under Article 120 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 to institute criminal proceedings against any person or authority in any court with competent jurisdiction other than the court martial; to direct police investigations in criminal matters among others.

 In the course doing our work, the ODPP encounters children who come into contact with the law as child victims of crime, child witnesses to crime, and children in conflict with the law (juvenile offenders). Therefore, it is the duty of the prosecutors in the ODPP to prepare Child Victims and Witnesses so that their voices can be heard in judicial proceedings.

The ODPP has embarked on putting in place measures geared towards entrenching child friendly procedures and practices in its work, the latest of them being the establishment of a children’s room starting with the head office. It is envisaged that this room which had been designed and tooled in a child friendly manner will be;

a)     A reception and holding space for child victims, witnesses before their appearance in court.

b)    Preparation room for victims and witnesses for court, by the prosecutors.

c)     Interview room for child victims and witnesses.

d)    Therapeutic room for emotional healing;

e)     Child offenders in the event that there is need for them to come to the ODPP.

f)      Children who at risk and may be in need of advice and support.

This initiative was made possible through our partnership with and support from the Children at Risk Action Network (CRANE). This room is going to be launched today the 29th of August 2018 after which it will be rolled to the Regional and field offices of the ODPP.

Purpose: To highlight the progress so far made in promoting child-friendly procedures within the ODPP and outline the next steps.

Current Status: The bulk of cases handled by ODPP are mainly defilement cases (Aggravated defilement meted against children below 14 years and simple defilement where children are above 14 years but below 18 years). The ODPP Annual Performance reports clearly show that defilement is rampant with the highest numbers of child victims as illustrated below.




Aggravated  Defilement

Simple Defilements

















Source: ODPP Case Statistics


In the course of handling child related cases, the ODPP Prosecutors encounter various challenges such as;

1.     Inadequate specialized skills by the prosecutors to effectively engage child victims and witnesses - (prosecutors are not trained to be social workers, counselors or psychologists.)

2.     Lack of special, child friendly spaces at the ODPP offices for preparation of children for court.

3.     Lack of special waiting rooms at court.

4.     Lack of witness protection legislation.

5.     Inadequate psycho social support services to the victims of crime. What is available is provided by Civil Society Organizations and they largely depend on development partners’ support.

6.     Victim unfriendly legislation regarding presentation of evidence of Children.

Key Mile stones so far.

1.     Established the Department of Gender, Children and Sexual Offences.

2.     Established the department of Witness Protection and Victim Empowerment, 

3.     Developed a Handbook for Prosecuting Child related cases in Uganda.

4.     Sensitization of all prosecutors on the above Manual.

5.     Training of Prosecutors on Child Psychology and Development.

6.     Establishment of a children’s room at ODPP head office.

Future Interventions.

1.     Establish Children’s room at Regional and RSA offices.

2.     Continue sensitizing players involved in handling child related cases.

3.     Review the Prosecutors’ manual on handling child related cases to match the emerging trends.

4.     Continue advocating for the enactment of Witness Protection Act.

5.     Design a Special Criminal Witness Protection.

6.     Continue to implement the Public Private Partnership Policy through establishing working linkages with possible partners handling children and SGBV matters.

7.     Continue promoting use of child friendly mechanisms while handling child related matters.

Wednesday, 04 July 2018 00:00

The 2nd Annual ODPP thanksgiving ceremony which took place yesterday at the High Court grounds, Kampala. It's a time when members of the ODPP staff and well-wishers come together to dedicate plans of the year to the Lord and seek His guidance in the proper execution of the ODPP duties.

Tuesday, 03 April 2018 14:34



(Hon. Minister’s Speech)


It gives me the greatest pleasure to be here this morning, to launch a computerised case management system for the office of the DPP and to launch the new DPP logo.

In March 2010 Uganda launched the NDP succeeding the PEAP, as the overarching national development frame work. The NDP stipulates the countries’ medium term strategic direction, development priorities and implementation strategies.

Within the NDP 2 the Office of the DPP is anchored in Objective 7 which is “STRENGTHENING GOOD GOVERNANCE, DEFENCE AND SECURITY”. The NDP 2 elaborates that this objective will be assessed based on the quality of socio economic and political governance; economic and corporate governance; the quality of democracy and the level of security.

The NDP 2 recognises the administration of justice, law and order as an instrument for realising growth and social economic development. Thus, the plan acknowledges JLOS in which DPP is a major player as a key enabling sector for realising increased national growth, employment and prosperity.

Government acknowledges that the Office of the DPP directly contributes to the observance of the rule of law and administration of justice as well as democratic governance. The institution also indirectly contributes /or gains from the other objectives of NDP as;

·       Increasing house hold incomes

·       Enhancing availability and quality of gainful employment

·       Improving stock and quality of economic infrastructure

·       Increase access to quality social services

·       Promoting science and technology, innovation and ICT to enhance competitiveness

·       Enhancing human capital development

·       Promoting sustainable population and use of the environment and natural resources


It has been established that information is a key factor for any development process. In light of the catalytic role that information plays in national development, Government has set up a policy and legal frame work to ensure optimum utilization of this resource towards socio economic development. For Government to implement the NDP 2 and other development initiatives, timely and relevant information must be available at all levels of implementation. Developments in ICT have dramatically changed the way information is collected, stored, processed, disseminated and used, thus making it the most powerful tool for modernisation and development.

Indeed, ICT has been identified as one of the rapidly growing areas that have potential to leap frog Uganda to benefit from the globalised economy.

On behalf of Government I wish to express gratitude to the ODPP for embracing ICT in its day to day operations. It is clear from the remarks of the DPP and the service provider that PROCAMIS is going to improve on the operational efficiency of the ODPP in very important and significant ways. The prosecutors will be in a position to generate, process store and retrieve information in a much faster and efficient way. This will go a long way in expediting the prosecution of crimes across board. PROCAMIS will also keep case relevant information in a secure environment and avoid scenarios like that which happened in July 2009 when the offices of the then DPP were broken into and very vital information and equipment were stolen.

Given its role in the contributing to the NDP2  and in the promotion of good governance and in promotion of the rule of law out lined earlier, the acquisition of ICT and PROCAMIS in particular by the ODPP means that the public will henceforth expect and  get improved services in among other areas, the following;

·       Faster and more efficient prosecution of all criminal offences in general and serious crime in particular.

·       Generation and maintenance of more accurate and reliable case statistics that can be deployed in national planning and budgeting.

·       Improved and robust case management for the prosecutors

I also wish to congratulate the DPP Justice Mike Chibita for having championed many useful initiatives in the office which include the creation of regional offices to bring prosecution services nearer to our people and for spear heading and overseeing the development and now launch of an ICT based case management system that will no doubt go a long way in revolutionising case management and the enforcement of criminal justice for the people of Uganda.

With these few remarks, it is now my singular honour to do the following:


(1) Launch the new Dpp logo







Friday, 07 July 2017 00:00


Under the theme “Strategies for Addressing Changing Crime Trends

 (Hon Minister Speech)

It is my pleasure to welcome you all to the colloquium for prosecutors and members of the senior administration staff in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

I commend the organizers, both from the ODPP and the United States Department of Justice for facilitating the coming together of the staff, not only to share experiences but also to acquire knowledge from a host of speakers with whom we share the quest for justice.

The theme of the colloquium is “Strategies for Addressing Changing Crime Trends”. This theme could not be more apt given the ever evolving nature of crime in an information age facilitated by rapid advancement of technology.

The several challenges emanating therefrom call for a concerted effort from all stakeholders to address the emerging and ever evolving threat of crime both organized and ordinary. This can be achieved by transfer of knowledge through sharing ideas, experiences, observations and concerns among others. The overall objective being to enhance Criminal Justice delivery in Uganda. This colloquium contributes to achievement of that objective.

A robust justice system is the bedrock for economic development and transformation. The economy cannot thrive if citizens and investors have no confidence in the rule of law and the important protection from lawlessness accorded by an effective and efficient justice system. The government objectives regarding administration of justice are:-

1.     To improve the legal, policy and regulatory environment to make it conducive for doing business to create wealth and employment. This is to be done through interventions such as strengthening the independence of the ODPP to administer Criminal Justice.

2.     To enhance access to JLOS services particularly for vulnerable persons, by developing JLOS infrastructure to facilitate service delivery as well as empowering the citizenry to demand and access JLOS services.

3.      To promote accountability and observance of human rights so as to increase public confidence in and satisfaction with the administration of justice.   

The fight against terrorism and transnational organized is particularly important to ensure a conducive investment environment to spur economic growth. The government recognizes that if not effectively combatted, lawlessness could severely compromise all other development goals including economic growth and thus hamper our vision to transform the Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years.

Yet today, some of the greatest challenges posed to our country arise from terrorism and transnational organized crime. From trafficking in persons to drug trafficking, illicit trade in wildlife antiquities, child pornography and international money laundering, recent advancements in transportation aided by porous borders in the region have greatly aided the escalation of transnational crimes in the region and Uganda.

It is therefore incumbent upon all institutions in the Justice, Law and Order fraternity to stand up to the task and ensure that law and order are enforced. The office of the DPP is an important stakeholder in this process. I am however cognizant of the fact that administration of Criminal Justice is not a preserve of the ODPP and the contribution by all the other institutions in the Justice Law and Order Sector as well as the development partners is highly commended.

In this endeavor, regional and international cooperation is inevitable for the world is now but one large global village intricately interconnected by communication technology, trade and commerce and an efficient transportation system. Luckily for Uganda, we have strived to achieve and maintain cordial relations with our neighbors in the region and internationally. We value the partnerships and support of our neighbors in the region and internationally to stamp out the ever transforming scourge of transnational crime and terrorism. Through arrangements for mutual legal and administrative assistance, we have successfully denied criminals a safe haven in our country and our region.  The government encourages and supports more robust commitments for cooperation in criminal matters internationally and within the region.

I want to assure the ODPP of the commitment and support of the government and my ministry to ensure that you are adequately facilitated to fully discharge the constitutional mandate of your office. Nevertheless, administration of justice is an expensive venture which the Government of Uganda cannot undertake alone, given its several and equally competing priorities amidst limited resources. I therefore on behalf of the government wish to extend our gratitude to the United States Department of Justice for their continued financial support to the ODPP.  

I want to thank the resource persons with whom you are going to share a wealth of knowledge and expertise and it is my sincere hope that the discussions held here for the next three days will further the fight for justice, in a bid to create a crime free society.

I would like to thank you all for your service to your country, and I call upon each and every one of you to soldier on, especially those charged with prosecuting cases of terrorism and other trans-national crimes. Thank you all for coming to be a part of it, and now is the opportune time to declare this colloquium open.

I thank you all.

For God and My Country




Friday, 07 July 2017 00:00


The 2nd Joan Kagezi memorial lecture was held on the 13th of April 2017 at Hotel Africana, Nile Hall, Kampala under the theme “Addressing Challenges in the investigation and prosecution of cases sexual violence in conflict situations”


The lecture was presented by Mr. William Narus, Resident Legal Advisor of the United States Department of Justice.


The Annual Joan Kagezi Memorial Lecture was inaugurated in 2016 by the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions in commemoration of the contribution made by the Late Joan Kagezi (Ag. Asst. DPP) to the delivery of criminal Justice in Uganda. At the time of her death on 30th of March 2015, she was the Head of the International Crimes Department, which among others, was responsible for cases of sexual violence in conflict situations.


One of the cases that the Department was handling at the time was that of Uganda versus Kwoyelo Thomas Alias Latoni who is currently indicted before the International Crimes Division of the High Court for War crimes and crimes against humanity. The crimes occurred within the context of an armed conflict in Northern Uganda between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebels and the Government of the Republic of Uganda between the years 1987 to about 2006. The accused was a Senior Commander in the LRA under the overall leadership of Joseph Kony, and was one of the LRA Commanders who was responsible for the attacks which took place in Kilak County, now Amuru District.


During the conflict in Northern Uganda, sexual violence was one of the weapons of war used particularly against women and children. In the course of investigations in the Kwoyelo case, evidence was secured that supported the offenses of Procuration of unlawful carnal knowledge, inhumane treatment and rape. The indictment against Kwoyelo was amended to include six counts of SGBV, which had not featured on the initial charge sheet. The focus had been on investigating and prosecuting the cases of murder, kidnap with intent to murder, causing serious injury to body etc. under the Geneva Conventions Act and the Penal Code Act.


Apart from the Kwoyelo case, there are other investigations into similar cases and expected prosecutions resulting therefrom.


Without doubt, the capacity of law enforcement agencies and other State organs to detect and adequately respond to these cases needs to be enhanced.


Problem statement:


It has been realized that although there is glaring evidence that cases of sexual violence were rampart during the Northern Uganda conflict, these are not adequately addressed either due to logistical challenges hampering evidence collection or other unique challenges encountered in handling these crimes and establishing their elements. Furthermore, the survivors of Sexual Violence often suffer acute physical and psychological trauma that require redress, else it has a destabilizing effect on the survivor and the community. There is also need to protect them from secondary trauma or victimization while encouraging their participation in the criminal justice processes. This is in spite of the shame, humiliation and stigma that may be associated with their circumstances. A safe system that protects and supports them once they have taken the decision to report the crimes committed against them must also be established.





Tuesday, 13 December 2016 00:00

ODPP, with support from the Justice, Law and Order Sector (JLOS) held the 1st Memorial Lecture in honor of the slain Senior Principal State Attorney, JOAN NAMAZZI KAGEZI at Imperial Royale Hotel Conference Hall on 28th of April 2016

The theme of the Lecture was “Fighting Terrorism and organized crime”

and the Lecture was delivered by Advocate Shaun Abrahams, the National Director of Public Prosecutions of South Africa.


The Directorate set up the War Crimes and Terrorism Department


Ms. Joan Kagezi, was the 1st head of the Department of War Crimes and Terrorism, which was set up in 2008, in a bid to strengthen the efforts of the ODPP in fighting terrorism. It adopted a prosecution led investigations strategy to ensure that evidence secured was reliable, dependable and admissible in court. This involved working with the investigators right from the commencement of the case, giving direction to the investigations, identifying the critical legal issues and ensuring that charges are supported by cogent evidence.


Joan’s work as head of the Department saw her involved in the handling of many cases of terrorism, notable among them was the July 2010 Bombings case where about 76 people lost their lives and scores more were injured. The Al shabaab took responsibility for the bombings.  Investigations confirmed their involvement in the training, financing and participation in the bombings at Kyadondo rugby club and the Ethiopian village. After a complex investigation in which she was closely involved, 15 suspects were produced in court and charged for various terrorism offenses. It was during the prosecution of this case that Joan was tragically shot down on the 30th of March 2015.


She was also handling several cases involving the terrorist killings of Muslim clerics in the country, international human trafficking and war crimes including the Kwoyelo case. The latter was in respect of atrocities committed during the LRA Northern Conflict in the country. 

Joan was a hardworking and diligent prosecutor, skilled in the art of prosecution and had a strong determination to see justice delivered. 

Investigations into her murder are still ongoing.

The Rationale of hosting the memorial lecture

The lecture under the theme “Fighting terrorism and Organized crime” was intended to draw the attention of the Public to the nature of threat posed by terrorism, the different forms of terrorism offenses and to educate them on the mechanisms so far adopted nationally and internationally. It was in honor of the Late Joan Kagezi’s contribution to the fight against terrorism.

Terrorism in Uganda

Uganda has experienced several acts of terrorism perpetrated through the Lord’s Resistance Army in the northern part of the country, the Allied Democratic Front (ADF) operating mostly from the western part of the country and even from the Al shabaab militant group which staged attacks on the people of Uganda in response to Uganda’s support for the AMISOM.

Uganda and the East African region is vulnerable to terrorist activity.

Measures to combat terrorism include strengthening the Directorate’s capacity to handle cases and prosecute them successfully, sharing of information, intelligence and evidence across borders and joining efforts to work together with police, security agencies, the army, the public, international organizations and other States.

Other measures include improving identification, seizure, freezing and preservation of assets of terrorists and terrorist organizations and ability to convert intelligence information into evidence. Terrorists are covert actors whose actions result into mass murder and mass destruction.  Use of surveillance and undercover officers then become necessary. Intelligence is a primary tool to ensure that terrorist plans are stopped before taking place.


The public is a very important stakeholder in the fight against terrorism. The first weapon against terrorism is the individual. Their eyes, their senses and their perceptions can be used to detect and combat terrorism. It was crucial therefore that the public is engaged by creating public understanding of the many faces of terrorism, and educating t